French and Indian War Campaigns and Forts in the Lake Champlain, Lake George and Hudson River Corridor (book review)
In "Empires in the Mountains: French and Indian War Campaigns and Forts in the Lake Champlain, Lake George and Hudson River Corridor" Russell P. Bellico doesn't whitewash the grim aspects of local history. "I'm not pulling any punches in providing details. I don't think the French and Indian War should be romanticized. The soldiers existed in a world of anxiety, horrific conditions and brutal punishments." The forts played a key role in the conflict, which saw most of its action in the area's corridor: "The forts we have here are really French and Indian War forts, even though some of these forts were used during the American Revolution."
The opening salvo in the French and Indian War: Washington attacks French scouting party
On May 28, 1754, George Washington, a 22-year-old lieutenant colonel in the British Army, led an attack on French forces at Jumonville Glen. Historians consider the salvo as the first battle in the French and Indian War, which limited French influence in the Western Hemisphere. The Ohio Valley had long been contested territory among French Canadians, various Indian groups and the British colonies. When the French began building fortifications along the Ohio River and ifnored Virginia's demand that they leave, Gov. Robert Dinwiddie sent Washington to defend "Fort Necessity" at the forks of the river.
Braddock's March: How the Man Sent to Seize a Continent Changed American History (book review)
British General Edward Braddock had a remarkable talent to offend. In the course of a 45-year military career, he alienated his officers, Colonial politicians and Indian allies. "Braddock's behavior is so excessively bad that everybody shuns him and hates him," one of his subordinates wrote in 1746. However, Braddock was named commander of the largest army in North America up to that time, then marched it into the wilderness without decent supplies, maps or intelligence on his French and Indian foes. Braddock lost half his force in a 1755 battle near what is now Pittsburgh's Point. Bravely, but in vain, rallying his soldiers, he was wounded and died a few days later.
French & Indian War guidebook of New York and Pennsylvania (Article no longer available from the original source)
A guidebook to 19 French and Indian War historic sites reveals how to travel 3 state and nationally-designated byways to reach forts, battlefields and freshwater destinations in New York and Pennsylvania. The Great Lakes Seaway Trail has issued Waterways of War: The Struggle for Empire 1754-1763, A Traveler's Guide to the French & Indian War Forts and Battlefields along America's Byways in New York and Pennsylvania. "Travel and history are great natural tourism partners. This new guidebook to the French and Indian War ... provides travelers with a wonderful vehicle for exploring New York's history and our waterfronts," explained Steven Englebright.
Guide spotlights history, beauty of Central Pennsylvania
Travel writer Christine H. O'Toole wasn't surprised by all the historic locations she found in Philadelphia and Pittsburgh - the start and end points for the Forbes Trail, the route that British General John Forbes marched in 1758 to drive the French from Fort Duquesne. This campaign ended in the British taking control of the Forks of the Ohio and the naming of Pittsburgh. "The surprises for me were in the small towns, many of which have a well-defined sense of history. Carlisle and Bedford are 2 of my favorites." They are among the 7 "gateway" communities in "Pennsylvania's Forbes Trail" history and travel guide.
Washington's only surrender: Ceremony marks Fort Necessity battle (Article no longer available from the original source)
A group of 50 people showed up to mark the anniversary of the battle between George Washington's Virginians and the French force and their American Indian allies at the Fort Necessity Battlefield in Farmington. The battle was George Washington's only surrender. "This was a very ugly place on July 3, 1754, 253 years ago," said historic weapons supervisor and park ranger Brian Reedy. "33 men lost their lives here." Reedy, dressed in historic uniform, went on to talk about the events, as Washington and his men fought the French and American Indians on a very rainy day. After an 8-hour battle, Washington and Captain James Mackay agreed to the terms of surrender.
1763: French, Indian War a Pyrrhic victory
Feb. 10 in 1763, France and Great Britain signed the Treaty of Paris, ending the French and Indian War, sometimes called the Seven Years War. At first glance it was a big victory for the British and their allies - the American colonies and several Indian tribes. The treaty stipulated that France would cede to Britain its North American territory making Britain master of the New World. But as it turned out, this war also changed Britain's relationship with its American colonies, which led to the American Revolution and the loss of those same colonies. In that sense, Britain's victory in the French and Indian War was "Pyrrhic" indeed.
America`s longest and costliest Indian Wars took place in Florida
America`s longest and costliest series of Indian Wars took place in Florida, against the Seminoles, and an exhibit at the Dunedin Museum of History tells the story of those 3 guerrilla wars. It was that propensity to shelter slaves that led to the First Seminole War. In 1817 U.S. troops invaded Spanish Florida to bring back the escaped slaves, destroy the "Negro forts" and stop the skirmishes... 1834 some opposed relocation and were spoiling for a fight: 1835, they ambushed 110 soldiers. The Second Seminole War was on, and before it was over in 1842, 2/3 of the U.S. Army plus would be involved. The Third Seminole War, or "Billy Bowlegs War," started in 1855...
Bloody Spring attack - Pennsylvania militia killed by Indians
Sunbury wasn't here 250 years ago. Instead, the remains of a small Indian settlement stood in the area. In 1756, Sunbury was the very edge of civilization, and a war between English settlers, Indians and the French had raged for more than a year. Early 1756 rumors abounded that the French and Iroquois were planning to build a fort down the west branch of the Susquehanna River. To counter this Gov. Morris ordered the Pennsylvania militia to build a fort. On Aug. 29, 1756, a soldier James Pattin, went to a spring. He was killed by Indian warriors and fell into the spring, his blood mingling with the water. The spring was ever after known as "the Bloody Spring."